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Author Topic: Basics of HTML.  (Read 3197 times)

March 09, 2016, 02:19:00 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Basics of HTML.
« on: March 09, 2016, 02:19:00 PM »
HTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages). HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. A markup language is a set of markup tags. HTML documents are described by HTML tags. Each HTML tag describes different document content.

Mission of the XHTML2 Working Group

2010-12-17: The XHTML2 Working Group is closed.

2010-12-17: XHTML Modularization for RelaxNG is out.

2009-07-02: XHTML 2 Working Group Expected to Stop Work End of 2009, W3C to Increase Resources on HTML 5. Today the Director announces that when the XHTML 2 Working Group charter expires as scheduled at the end of 2009, the charter will not be renewed. By doing so, and by increasing resources in the HTML Working Group, W3C hopes to accelerate the progress of HTML 5 and clarify W3C's position regarding the future of HTML.

2009-01-28: XHTML Media Types - Second Edition published. Many people want to use XHTML to author their Web pages, but are confused about the best ways to deliver those pages in such a way that they will be processed correctly by various user agents. This Note contains suggestions about how to format XHTML to ensure it is maximally portable, and how to deliver XHTML to various user agents - even those that do not yet support XHTML natively. This document is intended to be used by document authors who want to use XHTML today, but want to be confident that their XHTML content is going to work in the greatest number of environments. News item.

2009-01-16: CURIE Syntax 1.0 is a W3C Candidate Recommendation.This document defines a generic, abbreviated syntax for expressing URIs. See the ongoing CURIE implementation report for progress during the CR phase. News item.

2008-10-16: RDFa is a Recommendation. This specification allows publishers to express structured data on the Web within XHTML. This allows tools to read it, enabling a new world of user functionality, allowing users to transfer structured data between applications and web sites, and allowing browsing applications to improve the user experience. For those looking for an introduction to the use of RDFa and some real-world examples, please consult the updated RDFa Primer.

2008-10-08: XHTML Modularization 1.1 is a W3C Recommendation. The main change in this version is addition of support for XML Schema. The XHTML2 WG will now use this to add schema support to its markup languages that use XHTML Modularization. News item.

2008-09-04: The Semantic Web Deployment Working Group and the XHTML2 Working Group have published the Proposed Recommendation of RDFa in XHTML: Syntax and Processing. See also the RDFa Implementation Report.

2008-07-29: XHTML Basic 1.1 is a recommendation. With this, there is now a full convergence in mobile markup languages, including those developed by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA).

2008-06-20: The Semantic Web Deployment Working Group and the XHTML2 Working Group have published a Candidate Recommendation of RDFa in XHTML: Syntax and Processing. Web documents contain significant amounts of structured data, which is largely unavailable to tools and applications. When publishers can express this data more completely, and when tools can read it, a new world of user functionality becomes available, letting users transfer structured data between applications and web sites, and allowing browsing applications to improve the user experience. RDFa is a specification for attributes to be used with languages such as HTML and XHTML to express structured data.

2008-06-12: The XHTML2 Working Group published two Proposed Recommendations today: XHTML Modularization 1.1 and XHTML Basic 1.1. The former provides a means for subsetting and extending XHTML, a feature needed for extending XHTML's reach onto emerging platforms. This specification is intended for use by language designers as they construct new XHTML Family Markup Languages. This second version of this specification includes several minor updates to provide clarifications and address errors found in the first version. It also provides an implementation using XML Schemas. This version of XHTML Basic, which uses the Modularization approach, has been brought into alignment with the widely deployed XHTML Mobile Profile from the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA).

2008-05-26: The XHTML2 Working Group has released a Last Call Working Draft of XHTML Access Module. This document is intended to help make XHTML-family markup languages more effective at supporting the needs of the accessibility community by providing a generic mechanism for defining the relationship between document components and well-known accessibility taxonomies.

2008-05-06: The XHTML2 Working Group has released a Last Call Working Draft of CURIE Syntax 1.0 that defines a syntax for expressing URIs in a generic, abbreviated syntax.

2008-04-07: The XHTML2 Working Group has released a second Last Call Working Draft of XHTML Role Attribute Module. With the role attribute, authors can annotate XML languages with machine-readable semantic information about the purpose of elements. Use cases include accessibility, device adaptation, server-side processing and complex data description. The attribute can be integrated into any markup language based on XHTML Modularization.

2008-01-07: The XHTML2 Working Group has published the First Public Working Draft of XHTML Access Module. This document is intended to help make XHTML-family markup languages more effective at supporting the needs of the accessibility community. It does so by providing a generic mechanism for defining the relationship between document components and well-known accessibility taxonomies.

March 09, 2016, 02:19:19 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #1 on: March 09, 2016, 02:19:19 PM »
What is HTML?

HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch - to sophisticated WYSIWYG authoring tools. HTML uses tags such as <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc. Here is a 10-minute guide for newcomers to HTML. W3C's statement of direction for HTML is given on the HTML Activity Statement. See also the page on our work on the next generation of Web forms, and the section on Web history.

March 09, 2016, 02:19:31 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #2 on: March 09, 2016, 02:19:31 PM »
What is XHTML?

The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML™) is a family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML, reformulated in XML rather than SGML. XHTML Family document types are all XML-based, and ultimately are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents. XHTML is the successor of HTML, and a series of specifications has been developed for XHTML. See also: HTML and XHTML Frequently Answered Questions

March 09, 2016, 02:19:54 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #3 on: March 09, 2016, 02:19:54 PM »
Recommendations

W3C produces what are known as "Recommendations". These are specifications, developed by W3C working groups, and then reviewed by Members of the Consortium. A W3C Recommendation indicates that consensus has been reached among the Consortium Members that a specification is appropriate for widespread use.

In general, XHTML specifications include implementations of their requirements in various syntaxes (e.g., XML DTD, XML Schema, RelaxNG). These implementations are normative, and are meant to be used either as building blocks for new markup languages (e.g., XHTML Modularization) or as complete markup language implementations (e.g., XHTML 1.1).

While a normative part of the W3C Recommendation in which they are presented, these implementations are also code containing potential errors or omissions. When such errors are discovered, it is sometimes important that they be addressed very quickly to ensure that technologies relying on the implementations work as expected (e.g., validators and content authoring systems). The W3C process allows for the publication and frequent updating of errata, but unfortunately this process does not enable implementations to be quickly updated. As a result, the XHTML 2 Working Group has adopted the following concerning the production and evolution of its implementations:

    All implementations will adhere to the naming convention(s) and evolution rules as defined in XHTML Modularization. These names include both Formal Public Identifiers and System Identifiers. These conventions require that the System Identifier must include a revision number. This revision number is ONLY incremented when a revision is not backward compatible.
    Each applicable Recommendation will include fixed, unchanging versions of those implementations within the formal dated location for the Recommendation (/TR/YYYY/REC-whatever-YYYYmmdd/...).
    The Working Group will also provide a version of that implementation in the working group's space on the W3C server (/MarkUp), uncoupled from a specific dated version of the associated Recommendation. In the beginning this uncoupled version will be *identical* to the version from the associated Recommendation.
    If the Working Group identifies a problem with an implementation, and it is possible to solve the problem in a way that is 100 percent backward compatible, then the version in the group's space will be updated in place and an announcement will be sent to the XHTML 2 public email list.

The XHTML 2 Working Group states that the term "backward compatible" should be used only when:

    The external interface to the module cannot change in any way that would break another module or markup language, either within or outside of the W3C.
    The content model cannot change in any way that would cause a previously valid document to become invalid.

If either of the above constraints would be violated by a change, the working group will either 1) not make the change, or 2) revise the applicable module. In the latter case, the working group will also change the associated identifiers.

XHTML 1.0 | HTML 4.01 | XHTML basic | Modularization of XHTML | XHTML 1.1 | XML Events

March 09, 2016, 02:20:09 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #4 on: March 09, 2016, 02:20:09 PM »
XHTML 1.0

XHTML 1.0 was the W3C's first Recommendation for XHTML, following on from earlier work on HTML 4.01, HTML 4.0, HTML 3.2 and HTML 2.0. With a wealth of features, XHTML 1.0 is a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in XML, and combines the strength of HTML 4 with the power of XML.

XHTML 1.0 was the first major change to HTML since HTML 4.0 was released in 1997. It brings the rigor of XML to Web pages and is the keystone in W3C's work to create standards that provide richer Web pages on an ever increasing range of browser platforms including cell phones, televisions, cars, wallet sized wireless communicators, kiosks, and desktops.

XHTML 1.0 was the first step: it reformulates HTML as an XML application. This makes it easier to process and easier to maintain. XHTML 1.0 borrows elements and attributes from W3C's earlier work on HTML 4, and can be interpreted by existing browsers, by following a few simple guidelines. This allows you to start using XHTML now!

You can roll over your old HTML documents into XHTML using an Open Source HTML Tidy utility. This tool also cleans up markup errors, removes clutter and prettifies the markup making it easier to maintain.

March 09, 2016, 02:20:26 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #5 on: March 09, 2016, 02:20:26 PM »
Three "flavors" of XHTML 1.0

XHTML 1.0 is specified in three "flavors". You specify which of these variants you are using by inserting a line at the beginning of the document. For example, the HTML for this document starts with a line which says that it is using XHTML 1.0 Strict. Thus, if you want to validate the document, the tool used knows which variant you are using. Each variant has its own DTD - Document Type Definition - which sets out the rules and regulations for using HTML in a succinct and definitive manner.

    XHTML 1.0 Strict - Use this when you want really clean structural mark-up, free of any markup associated with layout. Use this together with W3C's Cascading Style Sheet language (CSS) to get the font, color, and layout effects you want.

    XHTML 1.0 Transitional - Many people writing Web pages for the general public to access might want to use this flavor of XHTML 1.0. The idea is to take advantage of XHTML features including style sheets but nonetheless to make small adjustments to your markup for the benefit of those viewing your pages with older browsers which can't understand style sheets. These include using the body element with bgcolor, text and link attributes.

    XHTML 1.0 Frameset - Use this when you want to use Frames to partition the browser window into two or more frames.

The complete XHTML 1.0 specification is available in English in several formats, including HTML, PostScript and PDF. See also the list of translations produced by volunteers.

March 09, 2016, 02:20:39 PM
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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #6 on: March 09, 2016, 02:20:39 PM »
HTML 4.01

HTML 4.01 is a revision of the HTML 4.0 Recommendation first released on 18th December 1997. The revision fixes minor errors that have been found since then. The XHTML 1.0 spec relies on HTML 4.01 for the meanings of XHTML elements and attributes. This allowed us to reduce the size of the XHTML 1.0 spec very considerably.

March 09, 2016, 02:20:53 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #7 on: March 09, 2016, 02:20:53 PM »
XHTML Basic

XHTML Basic is the second Recommendation in a series of XHTML specifications.

The XHTML Basic document type includes the minimal set of modules required to be an XHTML Host Language document type, and in addition it includes images, forms, basic tables, and object support. It is designed for Web clients that do not support the full set of XHTML features; for example, Web clients such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers, and settop boxes. The document type is rich enough for content authoring.

XHTML Basic is designed as a common base that may be extended. For example, an event module that is more generic than the traditional HTML 4 event system could be added or it could be extended by additional modules from XHTML Modularization such as the Scripting Module. The goal of XHTML Basic is to serve as a common language supported by various kinds of user agents.

The document type definition is implemented using XHTML modules as defined in "Modularization of XHTML".

The complete XHTML Basic specification is available in English in several formats, including HTML, plain text, PostScript and PDF. See also the list of translations produced by volunteers.

March 09, 2016, 02:21:08 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #8 on: March 09, 2016, 02:21:08 PM »
XHTML Modularization

XHTML Modularization is the third Recommendation in a series of XHTML specifications.

This Recommendation does not specify a markup language but an abstract modularization of XHTML and an implementation of the abstraction using XML Document Type Definitions (DTDs) and (in version 1.1) XML Schemas. This modularization provides a means for subsetting and extending XHTML, a feature needed for extending XHTML's reach onto emerging platforms.

Modularization of XHTML makes it easier to combine with markup tags for things like vector graphics, multimedia, math, electronic commerce and more. Content providers will find it easier to produce content for a wide range of platforms, with better assurances as to how the content is rendered, and that the content is valid.

The modular design reflects the realization that a one-size-fits-all approach no longer works in a world where browsers vary enormously in their capabilities. A browser in a cellphone can't offer the same experience as a top of the range multimedia desktop machine. The cellphone doesn't even have the memory to load the page designed for the desktop browser.

See also XHTML Modularization for RelaxNG and an overview of XHTML Modularization.

March 09, 2016, 02:21:27 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #9 on: March 09, 2016, 02:21:27 PM »
XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML

This Recommendation defines a new XHTML document type that is based upon the module framework and modules defined in Modularization of XHTML. The purpose of this document type is to serve as the basis for future extended XHTML 'family' document types, and to provide a consistent, forward-looking document type cleanly separated from the deprecated, legacy functionality of HTML 4 that was brought forward into the XHTML 1.0 document types.

This document type is essentially a reformulation of XHTML 1.0 Strict using XHTML Modules. This means that many facilities available in other XHTML Family document types (e.g., XHTML Frames) are not available in this document type. These other facilities are available through modules defined in Modularization of XHTML, and document authors are free to define document types based upon XHTML 1.1 that use these facilities (see Modularization of XHTML for information on creating new document types).
What is the difference between XHTML 1.0, XHTML Basic and XHTML 1.1?

The first step was to reformulate HTML 4 in XML, resulting in XHTML 1.0. By following the HTML Compatibility Guidelines set forth in Appendix C of the XHTML 1.0 specification, XHTML 1.0 documents could be compatible with existing HTML user agents.

The next step is to modularize the elements and attributes into convenient collections for use in documents that combine XHTML with other tag sets. The modules are defined in Modularization of XHTML. XHTML Basic is an example of fairly minimal build of these modules and is targeted at mobile applications.

XHTML 1.1 is an example of a larger build of the modules, avoiding many of the presentation features. While XHTML 1.1 looks very similar to XHTML 1.0 Strict, it is designed to serve as the basis for future extended XHTML Family document types, and its modular design makes it easier to add other modules as needed or integrate itself into other markup languages. XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0 document type is an example of such XHTML Family document type.

March 09, 2016, 02:21:42 PM
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EvilSpiriT

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Re: Basics of HTML.
« Reply #10 on: March 09, 2016, 02:21:42 PM »
XHTML-Print

    XHTML-Print is member of the family of XHTML Languages defined by the Modularization of XHTML. It is designed to be appropriate for printing from mobile devices to low-cost printers that might not have a full-page buffer and that generally print from top-to-bottom and left-to-right with the paper in a portrait orientation. XHTML-Print is also targeted at printing in environments where it is not feasible or desirable to install a printer-specific driver and where some variability in the formatting of the output is acceptable.

XML Events

Note. This specification was renamed from "XHTML Events".

    The XML Events module defined in this specification provides XML languages with the ability to uniformly integrate event listeners and associated event handlers with Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 event interfaces. The result is to provide an interoperable way of associating behaviors with document-level markup.

 

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